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<section>
<h2>Mental Models</h2>
<span class="citation">James K Doyle and David N Ford. “Mental models concepts for system dynamics research”. In: System dynamics review: the journal of the System Dynamics Society 14.1 (1998), pp. 3-29.</span>
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<div class="r-stack" style="margin-top: -7%; margin-bottom:-7%;">
<!--img class="fragment fade-out r-stretch" style="height: 80%" data-fragment-index="1" src="media/mm/mental_model_1.svg"-->
<img class="fragment fade-out r-stretch" style="height: 80%" data-fragment-index="1" src="media/mm/mental_model_2.svg">
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<img class="fragment fade-in-then-out r-stretch" style="height: 80%" src="media/mm/mental_model_5.svg">
<img class="fragment fade-out r-stretch" style="height: 70%" data-fragment-index="1" src="media/mm/mental_model_2.svg">
<img class="fragment fade-in-then-out r-stretch" data-fragment-index="1" style="height: 70%" src="media/mm/mental_model_3.svg">
<img class="fragment fade-in-then-out r-stretch" style="height: 70%" src="media/mm/mental_model_4.svg">
<img class="fragment fade-in-then-out r-stretch" style="height: 70%" src="media/mm/mental_model_5.svg">
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<span>&rArr; Measured through knowledge</span>
<aside class="notes">
<ul>
<li>Wahrgenommene Struktur: Nicht reale!</li>
<li>Beeinflusst durch Vorerfahrung und vorhandene Mentale Modelle</li>
<li>Verwenden zur Entscheidungsfindung</li>
<li>Wissen über das System als Indikator für funktionales MM</li>
</ul>
<!--ul>
<li>Definition by Doyle and Ford</li>
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<ul>
<li>Soziales Verhalten</li>
<li>Methoden der Transparenz</li>
<li>Falsche Erwartungen korrigieren</li>
<li>Falsches initiales Mentals Modell korrigieren</li>
<li>social feedback: einfach verständlich da bekannt</li>
<li>technical feedback: technische Natur</li>
<li>Generelle Aspekte; nicht die zugrunde liegende Architektur</li>
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<img class="r-stretch" src="media/study1/study1_timeline.svg">
<aside class="notes">
<ul>
<li></li>
</ul>
</aside>
</section>
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<ul>
<li>122/130 participants</li>
<li>24 Baseline, 38 Instr, 29 Vis, 31 Instr+Vis</li>
<li>balanced regarding gender & age</li>
<li>balanced regarding gender, age, ATI</li>
</ul>
<aside class="notes">
<ul>
<li></li>
<li>122/ 130 Teilnehmer</li>
<li>Keine signifikanten Unterschiede bei Alter, Geschlecht und Technik-Affinität</li>
</ul>
</aside>
</section>
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<li class="fragment" data-fragment-index="1">prediction of others' actions</li>
<li class="fragment" data-fragment-index="2">reasoning:
<ul>
<li>beliefs</li>
<li>desires</li>
<li>intentions</li>
<li>beliefs <span class="fragment highlight">&rArr; perceptual abilities</span></li>
<li>desires <span class="fragment highlight">&rArr; goals</span></li>
<li>intentions <span class="fragment highlight">&rArr; reasoning process</span></li>
</ul>
</li>
<!--Use the Frith et al. story to explain TOM!-->
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fridge. When Maxi comes back into the kitchen, where will he look for his chocolate
bar?-->
</ul>
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<img src="media/architecture/ToM.svg" style="width:30%">
<!--div class="r-stack">
<img class="fragment fade-out" data-fragment-index="6" src="media/architecture/ToM.svg">
<img class="fragment fade-in" data-fragment-index="6" src="media/architecture/ToM_robot.svg">
</div>
</div-->
</div>
<span class="fragment fade-up" data-fragment-index="6">&rArr; BDI-architecture as an approach</span>
<!--span class="fragment fade-up" data-fragment-index="6">&rArr; BDI-architecture as an approach</span-->
<div class="citations">
<span class="citation">Chris Frith and Uta Frith. “Theory of mind”. In: Current biology 15.17 (2005), R644-R645.</span>
</div>
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<li>beliefs: expectations (Not reality!) about certain things in the world</li>
<li>desires: Goals a person wants to accomplsh</li>
<li>intentions: deliberative actions to accomplish a goal</li>
<li>BDI-architecture was developed to imitate this on robots. However, a robot is no human!</li>
<!--li>BDI-architecture was developed to imitate this on robots. However, a robot is no human!</li-->
</ul>
</aside>
</section>
<section>
<!--section>
<h2>Requirements</h2>
<ul>
<li>beliefs <span class="fragment fade-right">&rArr; perceptual abilities</span></li>
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<li>Also, on which basis actions are selected are important as this process differs greatly from the way humans do!</li>
</ul>
</aside>
</section>
</section-->
<section>
<h2>FAMILIAR</h2>
<h2 class="r-fit-text" data-id="f_head"><span class="highlight">F</span>unction<span class="highlight">A</span>l user <span class="highlight">M</span>ental model by <span class="highlight">I</span>ncreased <span class="highlight">L</span>eg<span class="highlight">I</span>bility <span class="highlight">AR</span>chitecture</h2>
<ul>
<ul style="width:120%">
<li class="fragment"><span class="highlight">user comprehensibility</span> > control mechanics</li>
<li class="fragment">reasoning: reactive, deliberate, hybrid, <span class="highlight">behavior-based</span></li>
<li class="fragment" style="line-height: 0.8em;">reasoning: reactive, deliberate, hybrid, <span class="highlight">behavior-based</span><br>
<span class="citation">François Michaud and Monica Nicolescu. “Behavior-based systems”. In:
Springer handbook of robotics. Springer, 2016, pp. 307-328.</span>
</li>
<!--li class="fragment">Abstraction of low-level sensors for increased comprehensibility</li-->
<li class="fragment">transparency: <span class="highlight">user interface</span></li>
<li class="fragment">co-construction: <span class="highlight">visual programming</span></li>
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<aside class="notes">
<ul>
<li>Design choices based on comprehensibility from user perspective</li>
<li>Reasoning: Behavior-based</li>
<li>Important to note: Concepts not new, instead known concepts combined to form a new architecture</li>
<li>Behavior: Gute Mischung aus Komplexität und Verständlichkeit</li>
<li>Wichtig: nicht gänzlich neue Architektur, eher zusammenführung von bekannten Konzepten</li>
<!--li>Important to note: Concepts not new, instead known concepts combined to form a new architecture</li-->
<li>User Interface as window to inner processes of the robot.</li>
</ul>
</aside>
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<img class="r-stretch" src="media/study2/study-timeline.svg">
<aside class="notes">
<ul>
<li>Basierend auf dem definierten Interaktions Protokoll</li>
<li>Interaction Goal: Teach 3 regions</li>
</ul>
</aside>
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</ul>
</aside>
</section-->
<section>
<!--section>
<h2 data-id="head2">Interaction Instruction</h2>
<ul>
<li>explanation how to accomplish interaction goal</li>
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<li></li>
</ul>
</aside>
</section>
</section-->
<section>
<h2>Results</h2>
</section>
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<ul>
<li>81/85 participants</li>
<li>20 Baseline, 21 DV, 20 VP, 20 VP+DV</li>
<li>balanced regarding gender & age</li>
<li>balanced regarding gender, age, ATI</li>
</ul>
<!--Use Icons for nice graphical representation of demographics!-->
<aside class="notes">
<ul>
<li></li>
<li>81/85 Teilnehmer</li>
<li>Keine signifikanten Unterschiede bei Alter, Geschlecht und Technik-Affinität</li>
</ul>
</aside>
</section>
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<div class="side_by_side" style="width:130%; margin-left:-15%">
<div>
<h4>Mental Model Improvement</h4>
<ul class="fragment">
<li>architecture transparency<br>
&rArr; instruction video<br>
&rArr; visualization
</li>
<ul>
<li class="fragment" data-fragment-index="1">instruction video</li>
<li class="fragment" data-fragment-index="1">process visualization</li>
<li class="fragment">visual programming</li>
</ul>
</div>
<div>
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<ul class="fragment">
<li>familiarity</li>
<li>perceivability</li>
&rArr; FAMILIAR
<li class="fragment">FAMILIAR</li>
</ul>
</div>
<div>
<h4>Interaction Improvement</h4>
<ul class="fragment">
<li>architecture knowledge</li>
<li>less anthropomorphization</li>
<ul>
<li class="fragment">visualization important!</li>
<li class="fragment">less anthropomorphization</li>
</ul>
</div>
</div>
<span class="fragment">&rArr; Users are able to comprehend robots!</span>
<span class="fragment highlight">&rArr; Do not obfuscate technical nature of robots!</span>
<aside class="notes">
<ul>
<li>In Zukunft nicht technische Natur von Robotern durch Anthropomorphisierung verschleiern!</li>
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</ul>
</aside>
</section>
<section>
<!--section>
<h2>Impact</h2>
<ul>
<li class="fragment">improved mental model &rArr; improved HRI</li>
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<li>Architecture transparency for in-depth knowledge</li>
</ul>
</aside>
</section>
</section-->
<section>
<h2 class="r-fit-text"> Thanks for your attention!</h2>
</section>
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